Ann Arbor Public Schools Board of Education regular meeting (December 7, 2016): Huron High School, 2727 Fuller Rd
The Ann Arbor Public Schools (AAPS) Board of Education (BOE) trustees will meet in executive session at 5:00 PM this evening, citing attorney/client privilege. Executive sessions are closed to the public.
The regular meeting, starting at 7:00 PM, will begin with a moment of silence for Community High student John Kuhnke, who passed away November 28.
Special recognition will be given to the Hikone Student Exchange program. Student performances will be given by the Thurston Choir, led by Yael Rothfeld, and by student Dea Chappell, who will be performing a spoken word piece.
The trustees will hear two informational reports: the 2015 Bond recommendations for playgrounds, athletic fields, security doors, auditoriums, and musical instruments; and a student safety plan from Superintendent Jeanice Swift.
Three first briefings will be given. Merri Lynn Colligan, Executive Director Technology & Information Services, will walk the trustees through the Technology Refresh Bid Recommendation. Executive Director Elementary Education Dawn Linden will make the Allen Elementary Furniture Replacement Purchase Recommendation. An Additional Flooring and Paint Recommendation for Allen will be given by Swift.
There are no second briefings scheduled.
Board action is to be taken on an administrative contract approval.
7:09 PM The regular meeting is called to order by President Deb Mexicotte. Present: Vice President Christine Stead, Trustees Patricia Manley, Simone Lightfoot, Susan Baskett, Andy Thomas, and Trustee-elects Jeff Gaynor and Harmony Lightfoot are also present.
MOMENT OF SILENCE
A moment of silence is held for Community High student John Kuhnke, who passed away November 28.
Thomas asks that the agenda be adjusted to include an explanation of how the vacant seat will be filled. Lightfoot asks that it be made as the first information item. Stead notes they’ll need to recess back into executive session, in order to complete an item that needs to be done.
STUDENT PERFORMANCE: Thurston Elementary Choir
Yael Rothfeld directs the Thurston Elementary School fifth grade choir. They sing four songs, one accompanied by ukuleles.
Mexicotte congratulates the students for an “amazing” performance. All the kids nod when Lightfoot asks if they are going to continue with music after this. Baskett asks about the ukuleles. A student says it’s “really fun and easy with [their] music teacher, Ms. Rothfeld.” Manley congratulates Rothfeld on 14 years of teaching.
About half of the public leaves after the choir performance. There are now about
STUDENT PERFORMANCE: Dea Chappell – Spoken Word
Swift introduces Dea Chappell, a 17-year-old poet from Pioneer High School. She was featured at PopX Art Festival, she is a published writer, she presented at TEDx Ann Arbor. She stands up on stage and gives a powerful spoken word piece.
Manley tells her how powerful a piece it was. Lightfoot and Mexicotte thank her for reciting it.
STUDENT RECOGNITION: Hikone Exchange Program Student Ambassadors
Sister city relationship between Ann Arbor and Hikone, Japan will soon celebrate 50 years. Two seventh and eighth grade students are selected from each middle and K-8 school to be district ambassadors to the sister city, Hikone, Japan. The fourteen students who are selected participate in a yearlong intensive cultural experience. The program begins in Ann Arbor with five months of weekly classes in Japanese language and culture. It culminates in a student exchange, with students from Japan coming to Ann Arbor, then the Ann Arbor student traveling to Japan.
The student delegates who traveled to Hikone present to the board. Swift thanks the delegates for hosting a Hikone exchange student this fall and for traveling to Hikone, saying theirs is a “true lesson in diplomacy.”
Jenna Bacolor, Executive Director Community Services & School Wellness, introduces the Hikone exchange students and staff. The purpose of the program is to encourage international understanding among young people and their countries. The delegation includes two students from each middle and K-8 schools.
Several of the delegates remark on how the Japanese students treated their school, with respect. One of the delegates says she has become “more internationally minded.”
8:01 PM Amy Osinski, Board of Education Assistant, confirms there are seven speakers. Each person gets four minutes to speak.
Greg Pratt: He feels good about the board election. He congratulates Lasinski, saying he’s looking forward to her role in the Michigan House. He takes issue with the process of how the vacant seat is being filled. It seems the process is moving so fast, questions are being submitted, they don’t know who has access to what information. As a result of the mistrust of that process, the process isn’t being publicly vetted. When someone is still sitting on the board and applies for the vacant seat [as Mexicotte is], he questions the ethics of that. On whose backs is the district budget being balanced, he asks? Several services have been privatized. Community income lowers when that happens. Not something to brag about. He asks each board member to think closely, if it is an ethical process, if the rest of the community has to acquiesce to those who would cut and cut. He wants someone who stands up, who demands that education is appropriately funded. [applause and snaps from the crowd]
Sharon Simonton, district parent: Concerns about transparency of how the vacant board seat is being filled. District employees, parents, and stakeholders want to know how decisions are being made. Dismayed that interviews are being conducted on a Friday morning – when district staff, many parents, and other community members can’t attend. She cites the process used to appoint a county commissioner for a vacant seat as a better example. She strongly asks them to reconsider their selection process. Now, more than ever, the board and the community need to work together to protect public education.
Daniel Rubenstein, AAPS parent: Comment on policies on board as a whole. Should a trustee who was just voted out reapply for a vacant seat? He says it’s wrong for the trustees to appoint such a person. This move is “highly unusual” and “inappropriate.” Lack of precedence. This move overturns the voters will. This person [Mexicotte] was voted out, despite advantages of being an incumbent. Public voted for change. Conflict of interest? She has enough years to build up personal relationships, quid pro quo. Has put her fellow trustees in an awkward position. Reappointing this trustee through this backdoor would “re-traumatize Ann Arborees.” Now is the time for the board to show they have heard Ann arbor voters. This trustee should retract her application, or the board should not vote for her. No good reason for the board to keep the questions secret. Best practice. Request the interview questions be made public.
Kathy Griswold, former AAPS trustee: Commends Swift for her focus on improving pedestrian safety. She’s optimistic that at this point in time, significant improvement to pedestrian safety will finally be made. City has underfunded pedestrian infrastructure for over a decade. Invites community members to: #1 look for emails that will identify a change.org petition – asks the City of Ann Arbor to make pedestrian safety their number one priority in the 2017 budget – reallocating infrastructure funds; #2 attend City Council budget retreat next Monday at AADL downtown library.
Sara Forsythe, A2 Safe Transport: echoes Griswold’s commendation. Asks what is being done
Jake Altman, AFL-CIO: Our members have raised concerns that interviews are held during normal work hours. Meetings should be scheduled after hours. Asks where minutes from committee meetings can be found.
Cynthia Bostwick, district parent: wants to address the potential appointment of Mexicotte to the board. As a parent of a public school student and as a supporter, not the time to continue the status quo. This is the time for bold leadership. She opposes Mexicotte’s appointment. Mexicotte has presided over some of the most regressive changes made by the board. Voters have spoken. They do not want the status quo to continue. Honor the spirit of that vote. Take bold action. Assume that mantle of leadership in progressive public education.
Katie Oppenheim, registered nurse, president of UofM registered nurses union: expresses strong opposition of the re-election of Mexicotte to the board. In her previous service, she’s established a record of disrespecting the professionals who teach the students. Will only retain the teachers if they have full support of district. Mexicotte’s approach of privatizing was “soundly rejected” by the voters. Oppenheim says she doesn’t have children, but she proudly pays taxes to the city and to the district. On the behalf of the registered nurses at the University of Michigan, asks the board to respect the democratic decisions of the voters and not reappoint Mexicotte.
Swift says the issue of student pedestrian safety will be coming up during her Superintendent Report and during the Student Safety Report.
Lightfoot: we were intentionally clear with the process of filling the vacant seat. There is no concerted effort to not be transparent. Interviews had to fit around trustees’ schedules, she says.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS: AAEA
Linda Carter, president: looking forward to a transparent process for filling the vacant seat. She remembers a smooth and clear process when a previous trustee resigned. Scheduling the interviews on a Friday morning are like “throwing the rock and hiding your hand.”
8:32 PM Swift says the report is a little longer than usual. First, she shares some of the highlights around the district, such as the STEAM expo at Huron HS, Community High’s Communicator, the Pioneer music department.
Swift says she had a productive meeting the City of Ann Arbor transportation committee. The district is feeling support form City Council, the mayor, and the City Administrator. Will present to performance committee December 21 the preliminary findings of their study of high school start times. She encourages the public to weigh in with their thoughts. The survey is open through this Friday. It’s a very preliminary, initial step, she says. As of today, over 2600 participants share thoughts. Collectively, have shared over 8500 thoughts on high school start times.
Swift welcomes Gaynor and Mitchell to the board. She thanks the trustees for doing a good job of bringing them on board.
Status of transportation services: continue to monitor and assess. Looking at delivering metrics every month. Next Wednesday, will be bringing a comprehensive report on those metrics. On time performance measured by if students arriving within five minutes of their scheduled time. Scheduled arrival 86-98% each day over that week’s time frame. couple of reports put in to resolve some of the middle school time frames. Have authorized two additional routes to be added next week, with another three after winter break.
Average ride time across the district – 20 minutes for special needs, 18 minutes for general ed students. There are some ride times that hover in the 40 minute time range. As point of comparison, 1.1M miles driven since January 2016. Average about 7K miles a day, 106 routes.
Planning to bring an amendment the board directed – an hourly increase for bus drivers. Since the end of October, have run 100% of the routes, with none being missed.
Swift wants to express gratitude for the support from community as the district has lost five students over a 62 day period this fall. The response is overwhelming from the community, she says. It has taken a tremendous toll on the school communities. She can’t even speak how hard the teachers, crisis teams, the counselors, and the social workers have been working to address the impact. Swift says they are working to reach out to individual students who are the most vulnerable. A high school student advisory board is helping to plan a community event for all of the 5000 high school students. Instructional division and counselors have authorized a series of evening forums for parents, focusing on grief and loss.
Planning: Stead says the committee met on Monday. Allen additional flooring and paint bid recommendations, and furniture replacement recommendations – fast track mode right now so the community can get moved back before the end of the year. The paint and flooring will come out of the General Fund. Trying to get some improvements to the school while the building is empty. Stead notes they had many bids for the painting job. The vendor being recommended for the painting bid is new to the district. Their commitment is to bring a new, holistic improvement while they get the chance. The furniture purchase recommendation is based on feedback from other classrooms in the districts.
The committee looked at the pace the district is on for replacing technology. Stead says the bid is for a big dollar amount, but when looking at how many people are being served by the technology. She also explains that there is a need for AppleCare. Purchases will not impact the General Fund, but will come from the Technology Bond.
Stead also acknowledges the members of the Bond Advisory Committees. Recommendations for the 2015 Bond improvements will be made later on during the meeting.
Next Planning Committee meeting will be next year, with new committee members.
Performance: Thomas says the next meeting will be held on 12/21 at 2PM at the Sheraton. Will be taking up the topic of school start times. There has been a great deal of interest in the community, says Thomas. Will have received a report from the administrative team. Because of the interest in the topic, they are making a few changes to usual committee procedures. The meeting won’t be broadcast live, but it will be replayed on CTN. Ten minutes of public commentary will be held at the beginning of the committee meeting. He asks that people who want to speak coordinate their speaking points, so time isn’t wasted. The report should take about an hour and a half, with about 20-30 minutes of questions from the public at the end of the meeting. Thomas says this is “the first bite of the apple” on the topic. He anticipates the topic will come up at a study session, possibly sometime in January. They would like to conclude the discussion of the topic by the end of the school year, in order to have time to implement any changes that are deemed appropriate. Mexicotte encourages members of the public to write in to give their opinion on the topic. Lightfoot says they look forward to hearing commentary and asks people who are interested to “stick with [them] through the process” as the work is not “expeditious.”
Governance: meeting at December 9 at 2PM. One item on agenda, looking at policy of how the board looks at contracting.
INFORMATION ITEM: Board Vacancy Clarification
9:14PM Lightfoot clarifies what the board’s policy is for filling the vacant seat. When they come together, they will come into discussion to articulate their thoughts on what they want out of a trustee and to articulate their thoughts. After that, they will move to the vote. Osinski will provide slips of paper with the trustee names. After the trustees vote by writing down a candidate name on their slip of paper, Osinski will read out the votes, noting who voted for whom. If anyone receives four votes, that would be the majority and that candidate would be automatically and immediately be seated. The person with the fewest votes each round gets dropped, until they find one candidate with four votes.
Mexicotte has recused herself from the process. Lightfoot assures the public that Mexicotte has been out of the process and they are going above and beyond state law. Thomas said the questions were developed by Lightfoot, the parliamentarian, and himself. The questions will not be published in advance, nor will they be shared with any of the candidates in advance. Thomas says he looks at this as a job interview, and he can’t recall as single job interview where he has had the questions asked in advance. The questions will become available at the time of the interviews. Candidates will be asked to not compare notes with each other, so that the first person to be interviewed is not at a disadvantage.
Thomas says the interviews on Friday will be videotaped, although it will not be a live broadcast. CTN will broadcast replays. The process: each candidate will have a three minute opportunity to address the board on a topic given to them that day. Candidates can give a PowerPoint presentation, if they so choose – to be given to Osinski by Wednesday at 9AM. Deliberation – individual trustees may have time to give statement on behalf of one or another candidate.
Stead says Osinski may have to change the title on the link provided on the website regarding the Board Candidate Statement Question. Stead notes that the one currently on the website is only an example, in the vein of one that will be asked.
Baskett asked if the questions have been finalized. She also asks how they handled the questions sent in from the public. Lightfoot said the final list of questions are completed. Baskett expresses concern, saying the list of questions she saw from Lightfoot did not reflect the questions she has seen coming in from the public. She asks for the opportunity to review them one more time. She didn’t see the thought of the community, based on the questions provided by Thomas and Lightfoot.
Stead asks Osinski what happened with the questions sent in from the public. Osinski says she made copies, scanned copies of those, and sent them to Lightfoot and Thomas, along with questions used in the past.
Thomas says they received a number of questions from a variety of sources: questions that had been asked in previous times, questions suggested from the MASB, and members of the public. They had to do some winnowing down of questions, based on times. He said they used the approach of avoiding specific example questions. What they wanted to do, instead, is by asking open-ended questions, giving the candidates the opportunity to think of the wide range of issues faced by board trustees. The person asking the question within the time limits will have the opportunity to ask a follow-up or clarifying question, depending on the candidate’s response. Looking at broad issues, looking at overall approach to board membership -not to very specific questions.
Lightfoot said they wanted to allow for trustees to ask follow up questions, not constraining them, during the five minutes allowed for each question and answer.
Manley says she believes the board is being as transparent as they possibly can. They’ve talked to legal counsel, to MASB, in order to make sure their process is clean. They are not trying to hold anything back or pushing anything under the table, she says.
Baskett echoes Manley and commends Lightfoot and Thomas for doing the “yeoman’s work.” While she understands the concern of the community that the interview’s are being held during a work day, but she says they weren’t expecting to have to do this. They are trying to be legal, fair, and as transparent as they can.
FIRST BRIEFING ITEM: Allen Paint and Flooring Bid Recommendations
Based on scheduling constraints, board moves agenda around to accommodate Kevin Stansbury, from Mitchell and Mouat.
The insurance company will cover any paint or flooring that was damaged by the flood. Anything beyond that would be paid out of the General Fund. Contract for flooring is asking for up to $75,000. Stansbury says they don’t anticipate coming back to the board asking for an upward adjustment.
Painting bid – company will be new for the district: General Painting Company, LLC. Bid for $77,000. Not the
Swift notes that both the painting and the flooring replacement would be included in the $875K approved by the board out of the general campus enhancements from the 11/2/16 Mitchell & Mouat report to the board.
Baskett asks for clarification, saying that none of the companies are paying prevailing wage. They are paying hourly, and Stansbury said they were told they were expecting to pay a “fair amount of overtime” for the job.
INFORMATION ITEM: Student Safety Plan
9:48PM Swift says they have spoken with each trustee individually, with Mayor Taylor, with City Council members, and with City Administrator Howard Lazarus. She presents the initial draft of the AAPS Pedestrian & Traffic Student Safety Plan.
Stated goal: in AAPS, we will embrace the value of ensuring a safe environment for our students “door to door.”
Coordinate with City and Townships to ensure improved pedestrian/traffic safety in and around schools
- focused effort on improved crosswalks, improved flashers, street lighting, school zones, and reduced speeds around AAPS schools
- AAPS Student Safety Transportation Committee
- City of Ann Arbor transportation advisory Council
- Currently achieving some “early wins” from this escalated work, including signs at comprehensive high schools and Tappan Middle, as well as improved overhead lighting on Fuller, which is anticipated to be installed prior to the end of the year.
Coordinate & Support Safe Routes to School Work
- All 31 school campuses will engage in the Safe Routes to School (SRTS) work
- SRTS is an international movement – and now a federal program – to make it safe, convenient, and fun for children, including those with disabilities, to bicycle and walk to school
- When routes are safe, walking or biking to and from school is an easy way to get the regular physical activity children need for good health.
- SRTS initiatives also help ease traffic jams and air pollution, unite neighborhoods, and contribute to students’ readiness to learn in school
Education Campaign – Students/Parents/Community
- Coordinate with the City and Community groups to align our efforts to ensure increased awareness, change behavior, and improve outcomes.
Thomas notes that the initial safety issues are most acute at the comprehensive high schools and Tappan, based on traffic and streets. He mentions that A2STEAM @ Northside has been working on SRTS because of the increased traffic experienced there. Thomas calls the public’s attention to the work done at Bach Elementary – they’re not waiting for a SRTS initiative, he says. They are just doing it. He also recognizes the Slauson Middle School Girl Scout troop who presented a study they did on safety issues around the school.
Baskett asks Swift where community groups who want to help can “direct their hand.” Swift says there are about five groups focused on this, such as A2 Safe Transport, Washtenaw Bicycling and Walking Coalition, SafeKids. The district is looking at hiring a coordinator. Baskett also asks about the role of the townships. Swift says the Pittsfield Township representative does an “excellent job” on the committee, with Pittsfield being the only township a school is located in outside of the City of Ann Arbor [Carpenter Elementary]. Baskett wonders if there are monetary contributions that the townships can make.
Thomas says that for many of the schools, the traffic problems aren’t caused by the general public, but are caused by the parents dropping off and picking up their kids. The education piece will be key.
Lightfoot asks that they put in place some standards of what the district finds acceptable. Baskett says that she thinks of SRTS being primarily used for elementary schools and middle schools. She expresses concern about high school students, saying it is especially dark when they head to school.
10:15 PM The board takes a ten minute recess.
10:30 PM Meeting resumes
INFORMATION ITEM: 2015 Bond Advisory Update & Recommendations
Swift reminds the community that the bond was levied without an increase to taxes, given the historically low interest rates.
May 2015 Proposed Budget Allocations
- Athletic Fields & Facilities (outdoor): $1M
- Auditoriums: $1M
- Buses: $10.4M
- Classroom Environment – $10M
- Musical Instruments: $3M
- Playgrounds: $1.6M
- Secure Entrances: $5M
Linden walks through the recommendations for Playgrounds: They will employ a collaborative, building based decision making process, using BAC established criteria. Building principals will engage with all students and families. After having done that, they will use a playgrounds accessibility and features checklist – inclusive play spaces where all children can play together, regardless of disability.
Distribution model that allocates $65,000 each to the remaining 19 preschool and elementary buildings. Sets aside $145,00 in equity fund to be distributed via application process. Special consideration to schools with higher free and reduced lunch rates and ADA-specific needs.
Lightfoot asks about the process used. She asks of there were any lessons learned, based on the process used by Carpenter, Burns Park, and Bryant Elementaries.
Bacolor goes over the recommendations for the Outdoor Athletic Fields and Facilities (AFF). Prioritizing: use middle schools zones to ensure equitable geographical distribution across district, to serve greatest number of students, address AFF in worst condition. Recommendations, in order of importance. The dollar amount indicates quotes received.
- soccer fields $83,000
- middle school ball diamonds $109,200
- elementary school ball diamonds $114,300
- high school tennis courts (repairs) $115,500
- middle school tennis courts $123,500
The committee feels a strong commitment to maintain anything they added. They make a recommendation to to either fund an AAPS position for ongoing maintenance, who spends .5 on AFF and .5 on playgrounds, or earmark funds in each annual budget for maintenance of AFF.
Colligan presents Security Recommendations. Same year the bond passed, the county had a grant to install buzzer systems, which were installed throughout the district. The committee established baseline standards for security in close collaboration with city and country emergency partners. The recommendation is to replace existing system to provide: ADA accessibility for deaf and hard of hearing; mobile access to remotely monitor entryway; integration with security and phone systems; relocation of monitor base station at a cost of approximately $8,000 per site.
Mexicotte asks where the old equipment will go. Colligan says they will work with the county to determine if the district will be able to sell it or if they will need to return it, based on the requirements of the grant.
Robin Bailey presents Auditorium Recommendations. After surveying all the auditoriums and after input by professionals, the recommendations are:
- Address and rectify all safety ADA accessibility issues.
- Purchase and replace equipment to ensure adequate functionality.
The committee was committed to looking at the needs across the district, so the spaces are safe and functional across the district. Mexicotte draws attention to the Huron High auditorium.
Bailey also presents on the Musical Instruments recommendations.
- Purchase instruments to meet needs of all schools
- Purchase instruments to replace those rated 3 or 4 (poor playability/appearance)
- Purchase specialized instruments/equipment for equitable access throughout district.
FIRST BRIEFING ITEM: Technology Refresh Bid Recommendation
Primary useful life of desktop computers: 4-6 years; laptops: 4 years; iPads and tablets: 3 years; Chromebooks: 3 years.
Recommended purchases for December 2016 – a refresh of what was purchased in the Series 1 purchases. Three year AppleCare warranty included. They look to include a warranty through the useful life of the machines.
- 400 MacBook Air – 12 elementary schools
- 500 iPad Air 2 – A2STEAM Grades K-5
- 250 MacBook Air – A2STEAM Grades 6-8
- 250 iPad Air 2 – Bryant and Pattengill Elementary Schools.
Total price: $1,124,750 to Apple, Inc. The funding source for the purchases would be the 2012 Technology Bond Series 2.
Thomas expresses sticker shock. He asks if Colligan’s recommendation is to replace machines after the three-year AppleCare warranty ends. Colligan confirms that and says the older devices move to a secondary life. Thomas is frustrated by the “stupidity of obsolescence.”
Manley asks how long the Technology Bond will last. The Technology Bond Structure:
- Series 1: $27,275,000 beginning in 2012
- Series 2: $10,570,000 beginning in 2015
- Series 3: $8,010,000 beginning in 2018
FIRST BRIEFING ITEM: Allen Furniture Replacement Purchase Recommendation
11:17 PM Given that some Allen furniture must be replaced due to water damage, the recommendation is made to make a full replacement of all Allen classroom furniture.
Total of quote: $296,728.50 – reflects national TCPN bid pricing with a 22.4% discount. The entire purchase will be made using 2015 Bond Funds earmarked for furniture. The Allen administration and staff have made their choices based on the pilot furniture.
Linden says one of the purposes of the new furniture is to build movement in to students’ days.
Thomas points out that the furniture upgrade is not paid by the insurance. Swift and Linden clarifies that any furniture damaged by the flood would be covered by the insurance. The cost of any additional furniture would come out of the 2015 Bond.
Each additional month spent at Allen West costs the district money. The difference between the first week of April and the latter half of June is about $500,000 – if the district keeps the Allen community at the Allen West building. Thomas also addresses the issue of adding A/C at Allen. There is an excess of demand for summer school, he says, and so they would like to provide a temperate setting for summer school students.
SECOND BRIEFING ITEMS: None
The only thing on tonight’s consent agenda is to approve the minutes of the previous regular meeting.
The consent agenda is passed unanimously.
BOARD ACTION: Adminstrative Contract Amendments
Renewal agreements for Assistant Superintendent Instruction and Support Services LeeAnn Dickinson-Kelley and Deputy Superintendent Human Resources and Legal Counsel David Comsa. – no increase for the positions, just a standard renewal, says Swift.
Stead: submits a motion to approve contracts as outlined. No discussion.
The contract renewals are unanimously approved.
ITEMS FOR AGENDA PLANNING
11:37 PM Stead says she and Baskett are putting together a list of suggested professional development for incoming trustees. At the minimum, the trustees go to a training by the MASB.
ITEMS FROM THE BOARD: None
Stead makes a motion to have a two hour window for the executive session, “not that they fill the whole time,” but to give themselves enough time to complete the last remaining executive session item. No other business would be conducted in open session, other than to vote themselves more time to extend their executive session. 1:45 AM would be the outside edge of when the trustees would be there.
The motion passes unanimously.
The trustees are recessing to executive session. The regular meeting is not adjourned. It will be adjourned at the same time as the executive session. No other business will be conducted.
AnnArbivore is sustained solely through reader support. Please subscribe through Patreon to keep this coverage alive. If you value the citizen journalism provided by AnnArbivore, support it and encourage others to do so, as well. Thank you.